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Coaching Models

Coaching models serve as fundamental frameworks that guide the coaching process, offering coaches a structured approach to help clients achieve their personal and professional goals. These models are designed to empower individuals by fostering self-awareness, enhancing decision-making skills, and unlocking their true potential. As a skilled coach, understanding and utilizing coaching models allows for a systematic and effective way to engage clients in a transformative journey of growth and development.

Coaching models come in various forms, each with its unique emphasis and methodology. Whether it's the GROW model, S.M.A.R.T. goals, the Socratic method, or other innovative approaches, these models share a common goal: to facilitate positive change and progress in clients' lives. Through the use of powerful questioning, active listening, and goal-setting techniques, coaches encourage clients to explore their aspirations, challenges, and possibilities, leading to the creation of actionable plans for success.


The OSCAR model is a coaching framework designed to focus on solutions and strengths rather than dwelling on problems. It provides a positive and empowering approach to coaching, emphasizing the client's capabilities and resources. The model is named after its key components:

Outcome: The coach begins by clarifying the desired outcome or goal that the client wishes to achieve. This step sets a clear direction for the coaching session and provides a sense of purpose.

Situation The coach and client collaboratively assess the current situation and progress toward the outcome using a scaling technique. The client is asked to rate their progress on a scale, which helps track improvement and identify areas for further development


Choices: In this stage, the coach explores the client's existing knowledge, skills, and strengths relevant to the desired outcome. By recognizing the client's expertise, the model seeks to build confidence and motivation for taking action.

Affirm and Action: The coach acknowledges the client's efforts, successes, and positive qualities. Affirmation helps reinforce the client's self-belief and encourages them to recognize the progress they've made. This stage is then followed by formulating specific actions that the client can take to move closer to the desired outcome.

Review: The coach and client review the outcomes achieved, reflecting on the effectiveness of the actions taken. This step allows for adjustments to the approach and ensures that the coaching remains focused on solutions and continuous improvement.

The OSCAR model emphasizes a future-oriented, optimistic perspective, where clients are empowered to find solutions based on their existing strengths and resources. It encourages a positive mindset, enabling clients to break free from limiting beliefs and develop effective strategies to achieve their goals.



The STEPPA Coaching Model, developed by Angus McLeod, is a structured six-step process that prioritizes emotions to achieve new objectives and enhance performance.

Subject: Identify the topic

Target Identification: Define the expected result

Emotion: Define the feelings attached to either end results or the current situation.

Perception and Choice: Define what needs to change to reach this goal

Plan & Pace: Define your plan and actions as a brainstorming

Adapt or Action: Define your commitment and actions to reach your set goal.


This model is the most used with DevelUpLeaders Clients. It enables coaches to guide conversations effectively, broaden perceptions, identify motivating objectives, manage emotions, and create achievable step-by-step plans. It empowers individuals to take ownership of their goals, and its flexibility allows for adaptation based on changing circumstances. The STEPPA model proves especially beneficial for project managers, fostering emotional connection, promoting accountability, and ensuring flexibility and adaptability within projects.


The CIGAR Coaching Model is a structured approach designed to guide individuals through a problem-solving process and goal achievement. It consists of five key steps:

Current Reality: This step involves describing the current situation in detail, including thoughts and feelings associated with it. It encourages individuals to identify the factors contributing to their current state.

Ideal: Here, the focus is on envisioning the ideal situation or the desired outcome. Individuals are prompted to describe what the best version of their situation would look like and how they would like to feel.

Gaps: The Gaps step involves identifying the barriers and obstacles that are preventing the ideal situation from happening. It prompts individuals to recognize what is getting in the way of achieving their desired goals.

Action: In this step, individuals are encouraged to develop a plan of action to bridge the gap between their current reality and the ideal state. They define the necessary steps and commit to taking action.

Review: The Review step involves assessing progress since the last session or discussion. It is a follow-up on the actions agreed upon in the Action step, allowing individuals to reflect on their efforts and evaluate how things are going.

By following the CIGAR Coaching Model, individuals can gain clarity about their current situation, define their ideal state, address obstacles, create actionable plans, and regularly review their progress toward achieving their goals. This model serves as a valuable tool for coaches to support individuals in making positive changes and reaching their desired outcomes.



The (T)GROW Coaching Model is a widely recognized and effective framework for guiding coaching conversations and fostering personal and professional growth. It consists of four key steps:

Topic: clarification and exploration of the topic

Goal: In the first step, the coach helps the client set clear and specific goals. The goal should be challenging yet achievable, and the coach works with the client to define what they want to accomplish.

Reality: The second step involves exploring the client's current reality. The coach asks questions to help the client gain awareness of their current situation, strengths, weaknesses, and any obstacles they may be facing.

Options: In this step, the coach and client brainstorm potential solutions and strategies to achieve the set goal. The focus is on generating various possibilities and considering different approaches


Will: The final step is about committing to a plan of action. The coach supports the client in choosing the most suitable options and encourages them to take responsibility for implementing the action plan.

Throughout the GROW coaching process, the coach uses active listening, powerful questioning, and constructive feedback to facilitate the client's progress and development. By following the GROW model, individuals can gain clarity, develop actionable plans, and work towards their goals in a structured and focused manner. This model empowers clients to take ownership of their growth journey and achieve meaningful and sustainable results.


The ACHIEVE Coaching Model is a structured and solution-focused approach designed to help individuals identify and achieve their goals. It is a slightly expanded and re-ordered version of the GROW model.


The model consists of seven steps:

Assess the current situation: developing an understanding of the current state. The logic is that you can’t understand where you want to get to if you don’t know where you are right now.

Creatively brainstorm alternatives: start to think about potential alternatives.

Hone goals: start to refine how they would like things to be different and to define the goals that they would like to work towards.

Initiate option generation

Evaluate options

Valid action plan design: bring it to live and plan the sub-steps and actions they’ll need to complete to help them achieve their goal.

Encourage momentum


It starts with understanding the current state and then moves on to exploring potential alternatives and refining specific goals. The coachee is encouraged to generate options and evaluate them to determine the best course of action. Finally, the coach provides support and encouragement to maintain momentum toward achieving the goals. The ACHIEVE Coaching Model is particularly useful in workplace settings, offering a well-structured and action-focused approach to coaching conversations.

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